Richelieu, or The Conspiracy

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Richelieu, or The Conspiracy is a play in five acts by E. Bulwer Lytton (1803–1873)[1]

The original text

First performed in 1839. Became a standard of Edwardian theatre and is perhaps best known for its line "The pen is mightier than the sword", spoken by the Cardinal in Act II, Scene II.

Made into a film generally called Cardinal Richelieu, with George Arliss in 1935.

Translations and adaptations

Performance history in South Africa

1850: First performed in Cape Town by the Garrison Players (a company known as Captain Hall's Company) on 24 April, with H.V. Morton's The Original.

1850: Performed again in Cape Town by Captain Hall's Company on 8 May, this time with My New Wife and My Old Umbrella by Peake.


F.C.L. Bosman. 1928. Drama en Toneel in Suid-Afrika, Deel I: 1652-1855. Pretoria: J.H. de Bussy. [2]: p. 398,

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