Z.S. Qangule

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Zithobile Sunshine Qangule (1933-1992). Xhosa playwright and poet, translator, critic.


A professor of African languages at Fort Hare University. His works of literary criticism include studies of the work of A.C. Jordan, Ntsikana, S.E.K.L.N. Mqhayi (1979).

Contribution to SA theatre, film, media and/or performance

His verse play entitled Amaza ("Waves", 1974) became a prescribed work for schools in the new millennium, and was republished a number of times, and adapted for the stage and performed in Xhosa regularly from 2009 onwards.

Other writing

Besides a volume of essays entitled Igqudu (1971), he wrote a number of novels, including Izagweba ("Hunting sticks", 1972), Izikrweqe, acollection of three novellas ("Weapons", 1981) and a collection of poetry entitled Intshuntshe (1970). With Robert Kavanagh, he also produced The Making of a Servant , and Other Poems a collection of English translations of Xhosa poems (Ophir, Pretoria, 1972).





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