Eighteenth Century

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Key to entries

Items in normal text indicate South African non-theatrical events and activities Items printed in bold indicate South African theatre and performance events. All items in italics refer to international (i.e. non-South African) events or international theatre and performance events

Entries

1700AD

Leibnitz first president of Berlin Society of Sciences. Great Northern War (Sweden versus Poland, Denmark and Russia). Congreve’s The Way of the World. W.A. VAN DER STEL GOVERNOR AT THE CAPE.

1701AD

War of the Spanish Succession between France and the Great Alliance (England, Holland and Austria). BEGINNING OF FARCICAL ENTERTAINMENTS AMONG THE SOLDIERS OF THE GARRISON. (Bosman)

1702AD

Office of censorship in Paris.

1704AD

Battle of Blenheim: Anglo-Dutch under Marlborough rout French.

1705-7AD

Louis van Assenburgh becomes Governor in 1707. He encouraged public entertainment and a number of orchestras were established. Adam Tas and the Burgher Protest against the company officials.

1709AD

Steele begins The Tatler in England. Swedish army crushed by Russian army at Poltava.

VAN ASSENBURGH (GOVERNOR 1707-11) ENTERTAINS THE PUBLIC WITH PUPPET SHOWS, DOG FIGHTS, BULL FIGHTS AND FIREWORKS.

1710AD

Handel becomes Musical Director for Elector of Hanover, later George I of England.

1711AD

Wren’s St Paul’s Cathedral completed in London. Addison and Stelle publish The Spectator in England.

1713AD

A SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC RAVAGES THE KHOISAN SOCIETY IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN CAPE.

1714AD

Pope’s "Rape of the Lock".

1716AD

Theatre built in Wialliamsburg, Virgina USA.

1719AD

Defoe’s "Robinson Crusoe".

1722AD

Danish National Theatre, Copenhagen.

1723AD

Bach becomes musical director in Leipzig and remains till his death.

1726AD

Swift’s "Gulliver’s Travels".

1728AD

Gay’s The "Beggar’s Opera".

1731AD

Prévost’s "Manon Lescaut".

1733AD

John Kay invents flying shuttle, which mechanises weaving.

VAN RIEBEECK’S ANNUAL DAY OF FEASTING HAS BECOME A MONTHLY ONE, THE FIRST DAY OF THE MOTNTH IS USED FOR “FEASTING, DRINKING AND MERRYMAKING”

MENTZEL REPORTS THAT DURING HIS STAY (1733-1741) “MUMMERY” TAKES PLACE AMONG THE SOLDIERS OF THE GARRISON AS PART OF THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH FEASTING.

1735AD

Hogarth’s "The Rake’s Progress". Linnaeus’s "System of Nature".

1739AD

Hume’s "Treatise of Human Nature".

1740AD

Richardsoon’s "Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded". Frederick the Great Tsar of Russia. War of Austrian Succession starts.

THE SLAVE MAJIET WRITES A PLAY IN CAPE DUTCH, TRANSLITERATED INTO ARABIC SCRIPT. AN ACTIVE TRADITION OF THEATRE AND PERFORMANCE SEEMS TO EXIST IN THE SLAVE QUARTERS IN CAPE TOWN.

1745AD

Madame de Pompadour becomes Louis XV’s mistress.

±1746-7AD

Garrick begins to manage the Drury Lane.

1748AD

War of Austrian Succession ends.

1749AD

Fielding’s "Tom Jones". Goldoni’s "The Servant of Two Masters".

1750AD

Rousseau’s "Discourses on Arts and Sciences".

1754AD

Condillac’s "Treatise on the Sensations".

1755AD

Lisbon Earthquake kills 30 000. Johnson’s "English Dictionary". A second smallpox epidemic again ravages the Khoisan society in the south-western Cape.

1757AD

Robert Clive (of India) defeats the Nawab of Bengal, initiating British rule in India.

1758AD

Voltaire’s "Candide".

1759AD

British Museum opened. English capture Quebec from French.

1760AD

King George III begins reign in England.

1762AD

Jesuits condemned and suppressed in France. Rousseau’s "Social Contract" and "Emile". Catherine the Great Tzarina of Russia.

Gluck’s opera "Orfeo ed Euridice" performed in Vienna.

1763AD

End of the Seven Years war makes Russia a world power.

1764AD

Sterne’s "Tristram Shandy". Winckleman’s "Ancient Art". Voltaire’s "Philosophical Dictionary".

1767AD

Lessing’s "Minna von Barnhelm" published. A THIRD SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC ALL BUT EXTINGUISHES THE KHOISAN SOCIETY IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN CAPE.

1768AD

James Cook sets out around the world on The Endeavour.

1769AD

Watt patents improved steam engine. Shakespeare Jubilee in Stratford. Lessing’s "Hamburgische Dramaturgie" published

±1770-80AD

Holbach’s "System of Nature" (1770AD). FIRST CONTACTS BETWEEN TREKBOER FARMERS AND XHOSA FARMERS ON EASTERN FRONTIER BEGINNING OF ONGOING CLASHES BETWEEN THEM.

1771AD

CAPTAIN COOK VISITS THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE

ACCORDING TO COOK “THERE ARE NO PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS AT THE CAPE”.

1773AD

Goldsmith’s "She Stoops to Conquer". Goethe’s "Götz von Berlichingen".

1775AD

Beaumarchais’s "The Barber of Séville" opens to a furore in Paris on 23 February.

1774AD

Goethe’s "Sorrows of Young Werther". Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette King and Queen of France.

1776AD

Adam Smith’s "Wealth of Nations". Gibbon’s "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" (Vol 1). American Declaration of Independence and Anglo-Amercian war.

1777AD

Sheridan’s "The School for Scandal".

1779AD

Gluck’s "Iphigenie en Tauride" heralds new opera.

1780AD

Britain declares war on Holland.

IN TERMS OF A DUTCH-FRENCH ENTENTE THE FRENCH SEND A FRENCH GARRISON TO DEFEND THE CAPE. THE GARRISON REACHES 2-3000 TROOPS.

1781AD

Kant’s "Critique of Pure Reason". Appearance of the text of Beaumarchais’s "The Marriage of Figaro".

THE CAPE BECOMES A “LITTLE PARIS”, INFLUENCED BY FRENCH STYLES, ARCHITECTURE AND ARTS.

THE BEGINNING OF A TRADITION AMONG THE FRENCH GARRISON OF PLAYING COMEDIES AND FARCES IN THE BARRACKS. INCLUDES BEAUMARCHAIS’S "THE BARBER OF SÉVILLE".

1782AD

Mozart and Haydn become befriended in Vienna. Astley’s Amphitheatre presents equestrian drama and displays.

BEAUMARCHAIS’S "THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO" PERFORMED IN THE BARRACKS, CAPE TOWN(?)

1783AD

Treaty of Paris recognizes Independent USA.

1784AD

Beaumarchais’s "The Marriage of Figaro" performed at the Comedie Francaise on April 24th. THE FRENCH GARRISON LEAVES CAPE TOWN.

1785AD

Schiller completes "Don Carlos".

1788AD

Mozart composes his last three symphonies.

1789AD

Lavoisier’s "Elementary Treatise on Chemistry". The French Revolution begins, Bastille stormed.

1790AD

Burke’s "Reflections on the Revolution in France".

1793AD

Louis XIV guilotined.

1795AD

Hutton’s "Theory of the Earth". Prince William of Orange flees to England, and the Batavian Republic is established in the Netherlands.

"A View of the Cape of Good Hope and the Dutch Fleet" presented at the Bocking Theatre in England.

SLAVES OUTNUMBER THE BURGHER POPULATION OF THE CAPE. FOUNDING OF THE REPUBLICS OF GRAAF-REINET AND SWELLENDAM. THE ENGLISH FORCES OCCUPY THE CAPE (16 SEPTEMBER).

1796 AD

LADY ANNE BARNARD ARRIVES AT THE CAPE WITH HER HUSBAND, THE SECRETARY TO THE MILITARY GOVERNOR, EARL MACARTNEY.

1798AD

Wordsworth and Coleridge’s "Lyrical Ballads". Napoleon brings a scientific expedition to Egypt. Napoleon occupies Egypt.

Pixérecourt’s "Victor". Schiller’s "Maria Stuart".

1799AD

Napoleon becomes First Consul.

START OF THE “THIRD FRONTIER WAR” (1799-1803) BETWEEN WHITE SETTLERS AND THE XHOSA ALONG THE EAST COAST. SIR GEORGE YONGE BECOMES GOVERNOR.

SIR GEORGE YONGE ENCOURAGES ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT IN CAPE TOWN.

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