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The "pass book" (also known simply as a "pass" or a "dompas" [lit "stupid pass"] ) was issued to every African by the **??Population Registration?? offices and which had to be carried at all times and shown on demand. This was an identity document which contained a record of employment as well as stamped permission to be in the particular (“European” or “ white”) area, and was thus a key tool of the Group Areas Act. Problems with getting a pass, getting the necessary permission and stamps, and the often violent and unreasonable police action in terms of this provision formed the basis of a great deal of the anger of the resistance movement. Inevitably scenes involving pass violations occur in many works (e.g. it forms a central feature of plays such as Hamba Dompas, Siswe Bansi is Dead and Poppie Nongena). With the repeal of the Group Areas Act in 1991 **??, the dompas was replaced by a general identity document for all South Africans. **?? (See***)