- 1 The idea of a State Theatre
- 2 The State Theatre in Pretoria
- 3 Sources
- 4 For more information
- 5 Return to
The idea of a State Theatre
A National Theatre and State Theatre as concepts
The notion of a "national" or "state" theatre is an old one, and can have many meanings, from the notion of a specific building to a broad concept of state funded theatre. However the central idea has always been to obtain state funding and support for the professional theatre in a country, and that such a theatre would be an expression of the artistic and cultural soul and achievements of that country, state and/or nation.
The concept of a National Theatre or State Theatre in South Africa
The notion of a "national" or "state" theatre for South Africa also comes quite a way. Some of the ideas were visionary and grandiose (including theatre schools, orchestras, drama, ballet, opera and other companies, theatres in every town, and the like). However the central idea has always been to obtain state funding and support for the professional theatre. The interpretation of the notions nation and state though, have been singular in South Africa, over the 20th century.
The State Theatre in Pretoria
Though the general notion State Theatre refers to the national state-funded theatre of the country in general, as pointed out above, by the mid 1970s in South Africa the term State Theatre became specifically attached to the idea of a planned theatre building.
The theatre complex
Originally called the State Theatre Pretoria, and colloquially simply referred to as the State Theatre and since 1995 as the South African State Theatre .Later it was controversially renamed the Spoornet State Theatre and finally the South African State Theatre. It is a formal theatre complex built on the old Market Square between Pretorius and Schoeman streets, adjacent to what was to become Strijdom Square. It was built by the Provincial Council of the Transvaal for the use of the Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal (PACT)by two architectural firms, Botha, Lötter & Partners and Daneel & Smit. The complex was formally opened in 1981 with a programme of extravagant theatre, including a production of Germanicus by N.P. van Wyk Louw, Ampie by Van Bruggen, ** and **. An exhibition on the history of South African Theatre was also mounted for the occasion, by the Centre for South African Theatre Research (CESAT) of the HSRC. The first words on the stage were spoken by veteran Afrikaans/English actor Siegfried Mynhardt. The first director was Rodney Philips. The complex covers 72 143 m2 and , besides the administration offices for the Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal (PACT), the complex originally had four theatres (the Opera, the Drama, the Arena and the Studio) and a number of other venues (Transvalia room, restaurant, cafeteria, etc.), all geared towards the performances of operas, dramas, ballets and musical recitals. In 1983 a fifth theatre was added, the Momentum. There are seven soundproof rehearsal venues, one of which has an orchestra pit. The eighty-eight dressing rooms are situated in such a manner that it has easy access to all stages. The wardrobe facilitates the making and storage of costumes and also has a laundry. The technical workshops make it possible to work with steel, wood, plastic and also to do electro-technical work. The décor workspace had, up to date, the biggest paint frame in the world (23 x 10 meters). There are underground parking space for more that a 1000 automobiles. The décor in the theatre foyers consists of dampened lights, marble, deep carpets and hanging stairs. The theatre also caters for the needs of invalids. Opera theatre- This theatre is the biggest one in the complex and seats 1327 audience members in the continental seating arrangement. The main stage uses five lifts to take the décor onto the workshop floor 10m below or raise it 3m above the stage floor into the wings. The stages lie in the form of a cross with the top one fitted with a revolve. The orchestra pit has room for 110 players and the conductors’ podium can be mechanically set. The lighting box is 55m in height and probably the highest of its kind in the world. Drama stage- This theatre is a smaller version (almost exact replica) of the opera theatre and seats 712 audience members. The orchestra pit seats 45 players. The Studio- The studio seats 150 people and although its main function is to house puppetry plays it also plays host to small musical galas, a seminar space and also acts as a recording studio for PACT symphony orchestra. The flexible Momentum theatre is basically for experimental work. The seminar room –‘Die Transvalia’ –This room has no stage and serves multiple functions. The space can seat at least 110 people. *** In June 2000 the State Theatre was closed by the Minister of Arts and Culture, owing to extreme financial difficulties and an investigation into corruption by the Ministry. The Minister, Dr Ben Ngubane, announced the new State Theatre board in July 2000. Welcome Msomi, creator of Umabatha in the 1980s, was appointed chairman. The other members were Walter Chakela (chief of the Windybrow complex in Johannesburg), Doreen Nteta (CEO of the National Arts Council), Christopher Seabrooke (a board member of Business and Arts South Africa (Basa)), Edmund Radebe (chief of the Playhouse Company in Durban), Bongani Tembe (head of the orchestra at the Playhouse), Mike van Graan (Artscape consultant and well-known arts commentator), Jay Pather (lecturer in the Arts), Mannie Manim (founder member of the Market Theatre), Themba Wakashe (from DACST), Carol Steinberg (advisor to Dr Ngubane) and Sikkie Kajee (administrator of the State Theatre). Although the State Theatre was officially closed or “mothballed” and not operating as before, the new board decided that the facilities would be available for hire to production companies and entrepreneurs until its official re-opening in April 2001. The government would continue funding the maintenance and general upkeep of the building, but would not be subsidising the productions. This opportunity was immediately taken up by the independent company Maestro Entertainment Holdings, chaired by Chris Lodewyk. He leased the two main theatres at the State for November and December 2000 to stage three shows: The Nutcracker ballet, a musical revue titled It’s Not Where You Start, and the choral show The Singing Christmas Tree. The undertaking ended, however, in failure. The run of It’s Not Where You Start was closed early and Lodewyk declared that the production was costing Maestro in excess of R80 000 a week to keep on stage - but bookings for the entire run were only R50 000. The Nutcracker drew 40% audiences and The Singing Christmas Tree sold just over 100 tickets per night for the 1 300-seat Opera Theatre. In the end Maestro claimed to have suffered a loss of almost a million rand. Although Lodewyk denied it, the failure was blamed on high ticket prices and on poor marketing and publicity. The State Theatre officially re-opened on April 4, 2001 with a core staff of 80 re-employed people (40 technical staff and 40 administrative staff). The re-opening was marked by a multi-cultural musical evening celebrating diversity, featuring the KZN Provincial Orchestra, traditional dance from Welcome Msomi's musical Umabatha, classical ballet from Giselle, gospel music of Family Factory, arias from Cosi fan Tutte and Carmen, the isicathamiya from the Soshanguve Tycoons and Victor Masondo's Mack the Knife. It was directed by John Kani, at the time chief executive of the Market Theatre in Johannesburg and the National Arts Council, who was also the MC for the evening. The once-off performance for an invited audience cost DACST R740 000. A new CEO, Michael Lovegrove was appointed in December 2001. He was a former Pact administrator and Sun City producer. Lovegrove immediately declared that what the State Theatre needed was ‘popular’ theatre, musicals and pantomimes and announced that Cats would open in the theatre in February. Aubrey Sekhabi, 32-year-old Wits drama graduate, playwright and artistic director of the North West Drama Company for the previous eight years, was appointed the new artistic director. Under this new management the State Theatre started offering a wide variety of productions which clearly indicated an intention to reflect, and attract, the new South Africa. For the more conventional State Theatre audience Cats and Madame Butterfly started the year; two operas, Brett Bailey’s African-themed Macbeth and a more traditional Aida, were imported from Cape Town, and the ballet The Sleeping Beauty was staged. For the smaller theatre venues two more Cape productions, Glass Roots and Suip! were imported and, amongst others, Athol Fugard’s Sorrows and Rejoicings (starring Pretoria’s favourite Marius Weyers), Harry Kalmer's double bill of Briewe aan 'n Rooi Dak [Letters to a Red Roof] and The Bitterbek Blues of Ben (Die Breker) Bartman, Janice Honeyman’s Vatmaar, Yael Farber’s He Left Quietly, Bongani Linda's Shaka Ka Zulu (The Gaping Wound), Kgafela Oa Magogodi's Itchy City and King Baabu by Wole Soyinka were put on during the first year.*** *** *** Pretoria State Theatre: They opened in 1981. Leonard Schach’s production of Arthur Miller’s After the Fall was staged by PACT for the opening production at the State Theatre, starring American Brian Murray and Erica Rogers. An opening production called Applause was devised and directed by Anthony Farmer. PACT revived Kismet, The Great Waltz and Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat with Richard Loring and Alvon Collison for the opening season in 1981.Peter Shaffer’s The Royal Hunt of the Sun, directed by Leonard Schach and starring Keith Grenville, Marius Weyers, Michael McCabe, David Horner, Patrick Mynhardt and Bill Flynn was staged during the opening season. Robert Mohr’s production of A Midsummer Night’s Dream with Etienne Puren, Louise Saint Claire, Michael Richard and Tobie Cronje; and Eduardo di Filippo’s Filumena, directed by François Swart and starring Wilna Snyman formed part of the opening season. Siener in die Suburbs, Kanna Hy Kô Hystoe and Ampie, and N.P.van Wyk Louw’s Germanicus starring Marius Weyers formed part of the opening season of the new drama theatre in 1981.Eric Smith brought his puppet show called Eric’s Puppet Company. Andrew Lloyd-Webber and Tim Rice’s Evita starring Jo-Ann Pezzaro/Sharon Lynne, Gé Korsten and Eric Flynn and directed by Geoffrey Martin was staged here in 1981. PACT staged William Gibson’s Monday After the Miracle, the sequel to The Miracle Worker starring Sandra Duncan and Pamela Gien with direction by François Swart at the State Theatre in 1982. Aubrey Berg’s production of Tennessee Williams’ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof starring Lena Ferugia, Ron Smerczak and Victor Winding was staged here by PACT in 1982 before moving to the Alexander. William Egan directed an Afrikaans translation of The Taming of the Shrew called Die Vasvat van ‘n Feeks starring Marius Weyers and Sandra Prinsloo for PACT at the Pretoria State Theatre in February 1983. PACT presented Sheridan’s The Rivals starring Pauline Bailey, John Hussey, Wilson Dunster, James White, Pamela Gien and John Lesley directed by Michael Atkinson here in March 1983. They presented John Osborne’s The Entertainer starring Michael Atkinson, Helen Jessop, Stuart Brown, Kate Edwards and Gina Benjamin at the Alexander in June. William Egan’s production of Tennessee Williams’ Night of the Iguana starring Eric Flynn, Sandra Duncan, Annabel Linder and Anthony James was staged at the Alexander in 1983. Neil Simon’s The Prisoner of Second Avenue starring Michael McCabe and Erica Rogers and directed by Ken Leach was staged at the Alexander in 1983. PACT revived Die Swerfjare van Poppie Nongena starring Nomsa Nene and directed by Marius Weyers here in August 1983 before moving to the Alexander. Taubie Kushlick staged The Best of Brel here for PACT in 1983 before it moved to the Leonard Rayne. PACT staged The Merry Widow starring Roberta Palmer and Gé Korsten and directed by Neels Hansen in December 1983. A new venue called the Momentum Theatre opened here in March 1984 which PACT announced they would use for experimental work. (see Momentum Theatre) Anthony Farmer directed Showboat starring Bess Arlene, Mayo Miza with Ed Barrett and Pieter Niemann alternating the role of Gaylord Ravenals. It was staged here by PACT in December 1984. The King and I starring Joe Stewardson and Judy Page was staged here in December 1986. Marius Weyers and Sandra Prinsloo under François Swart’s direction starred in an Afrikaans translation of Hamlet here for TRUK in 1987. All the performing arts councils jointly staged The Great Waltz under David Matheson’s direction with choreography by Geoffrey Sutherland in 1987. It opened here before touring to all the major cities. Gibson Kente’s musical Sekunjalo, the Naked Hour was staged here in September 1988. Max Collie performed here in 1989. PACT, NAPAC and PACOFS presented Lerner and Louwe’s Camelot here in 1989. PACT staged an Afrikaans version of King Lear here in 1990. PACT, PACOFS and NAPAC presented My Fair Lady here in 1990. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers was a combined performing arts council’s production which was staged here in January 1991. Lerner and Louwe’s Brigadoon was staged here in 1991. PACT staged Romeo and Juliet here in 1992. François Swart’s production of Gigi was staged here in 1992. Lisa Kent’s production of Me and My Girl was staged here in 1993. PACT presented Dalene Matthee’s Fiela se Kind here in 1994. Geoffrey Sutherland, Andrew Botha and Graham Scott’s production of Queen at the Opera was staged here from November 1996 to January 1997. Charles Wilson’s Don Gxubane Onner die Boere was staged at the Arena at the State Theatre in 1994. **** (See D. Reynecke in Hauptfleisch,1985; Tucker, 1997) State Theatre In 2000, after financial irregularities etc, it was closed for a while, then opened as a receiving house in 200*
The State Theatre complex operates and manages six world class theatres which with seating capacities range from 120 to 1300 seats.
The Arena, the complex's third largest theatre, can double as the main opera rehearsal hall.
There is no set seating in the Arena except for the 88seats on the gallery. Movable and collapsible seating units can provide a further 200 seats for patrons.Fully equipped computerised lighting and sound control rooms form part of this highly sophisticated theatre.
The Opera House
This is the largest of six theatres, seating 1,300 patrons on three levels including a balcony. It has an orchestra pit that can accommodate up to 60 musicians. The size of the orchestra pit can vary by adjusting the back wall of the pit.
The seating has been arranged to have excellent views of the stage from any vantage point. Continental style seating has been adopted, which means there are two entrance/exit doors for every four rows of seats to facilitate the entrance and exit of patrons.
A venue which was opened at the State Theatre in March 1984 for experimental work. Their first production was Graffiti 84 in 1984.
Both the theatre and bar area of the Rendezvous has recently been revamped. The new modern interior contributes to the venue being excellent for hosting cabarets, jazz recitals, small and one-man shows. It is also and exellent venue for private functions and presentations
The theatre has seating for 260 patrons. It is situated off the car park on the upper level.
The Drama Theatre with continental style seating for 640 on one level. An orchestra pit, which can accommodate up to 40 musicians, also makes it a suitable venue for smaller opera or musical productions.
It has three foyer levels. Ground floor foyer with an Art Gallery and conference facility; a main foyer with refreshment centres and a balcony mezzanine.
D. Reynecke in Hauptfleisch,1985;
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