The "language struggle" referred to here, is the Afrikaanse Taalstryd (="Language Struggle for Afrikaans"") of the late 19th century and early 20th century, in which the descendents of the Dutch population in the country fought to have the local version of Dutch (originally termed "kitchen Dutch", as it was spoken by slaves and "backward" farmers, but gradually named Afrikaansch [*?] or Afrikaans ) accepted as an official language, instead of or alongside English (in this case rather than official or "High" Dutch). The battle was finally won in 1925. The arts - including a vibrant theatre - were employed actively and consciously to attain these ends.
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