Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries
±1000 AD Venice begins to evolve as a great commercial centre.
Norwegian Vikings reach North America.
1016AD The Danish conqueror Canute becomes King of England
1054AD The Byzantine Church breaks with Rome.
William of Normandy wins battle of Hastings and becomes King of England
±1075AD Wool-manufacturing towns of Flanders help to revive European trade.
1080-1140AD Peter Abelard writes letters to Héloïse.
William IX, Duke of Normandy – the first known troubadour.
1087AD The Moslems build Timbuktu as a centre of commerce and learning.
±1090AD The Song of Roland composed in Medieval French. Chinese text mentions use of the compass by Arabs.
1095-1099AD First Crusade captures Jerusalem.
c. 1363 – c. 1443 Zeami writes his plays and theories of acting in Japan.
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