Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries

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Eleventh Century

±1000 AD Venice begins to evolve as a great commercial centre.

Norwegian Vikings reach North America.

1016AD The Danish conqueror Canute becomes King of England

1054AD The Byzantine Church breaks with Rome.

William of Normandy wins battle of Hastings and becomes King of England

±1075AD Wool-manufacturing towns of Flanders help to revive European trade.

1080-1140AD Peter Abelard writes letters to Héloïse.

William IX, Duke of Normandy – the first known troubadour.

1087AD The Moslems build Timbuktu as a centre of commerce and learning.

±1090AD The Song of Roland composed in Medieval French. Chinese text mentions use of the compass by Arabs.

1095-1099AD First Crusade captures Jerusalem.

Twelfth Century

±1100-1200AD Chanson de Roland written. Growth of drama in China after Mongol take-over

2nd Crusade (1147-1149AD).

Growth of drama in China after Mongol take-over

1123AD Omar Khayyam (?-1123), poet and astronomer, dies

1153AD The Islamic geographer Idrisi’s The Pleasure of the Ardent Inquirer, containing his circular map of the world.

1163AD Notre Dame Cathedral begun in Paris

1170AD Thomas à Beckett murdered in Canterbury. Mystère d’Adam performed in France.

1187AD Saladin defeats the crusaders and takes Jerusalem.

1189-1192AD 3rd Crusade.

Thirteenth Century

Fourteenth Century

c. 1363 – c. 1443 Zeami writes his plays and theories of acting in Japan.

Fifteenth Century

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